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Thomas Edison và Nikola Tesla, những sự thật chưa được hé lộ

Cập nhật: 01 thg 4, 2019 lúc tháng 3 31, 2019

Thomas Edison with facts you didn't know and Nikola Tesla, a science genius forgotten by the world.
Perhaps Thomas Edison's name is no stranger, since we were in school, we have heard many stories about him. Edison was expelled because of his poor intelligence, but he was eager to learn, mainly self-studying and experimenting, telling the story that at the age of 12 Edison sold newspapers on a train but because of his interest in research he "sneaked" up. there must be a chemical laboratory and print newspapers right on a freight train. Moreover, he is famous for many inventions such as electric light bulbs, recorders, film projectors, etc. Meanwhile, Nicola Tesla is considered a genius inventor, once an employee of Thomas Edison as He is a much less frequently mentioned name, although he also has a lot of contributions to science. But behind the success and failure of a human being, how many things have not been told.

Thomas Edison (1847 - 1931)

Thomas Edison (real name Thomas Alva Edison) was born on February 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio, died October 18, 1931 in West Orange, New Jersey. America. He was an inventor and merchant who developed a lot of devices that had a great impact on our lives in the 20th century. He was named a "Wizard in Menlo Park" by a journalist. Some inventions were attributed to him, though he was not the first to have that idea or he bought another invention and corrected it (the most famous was the light bulb). However, Edison is considered one of the most inventive inventors in history, he holds 1,093 patents in the United States under his name, as well as patents in the UK, France and Germany (a total of 1,500 by inventions all over the world). Come here,

For two reasons: Firstly, he is just an improvement of electric light bulbs so that it can be used longer, reliable and easier to mass produce than not the inventor. Second, his remarkable point is not how to produce products (such as light bulbs) but how to make money from it. He founded Edison Illuminating Company, and opened the first power station (DC) in New York in 1882.

But perhaps because Edison's approach is more about practice than theoretical learning, he fails several times before succeeding. So Nicola Tesla commented on Edison as follows: "If Edison had to find a needle in the straw, he would work diligently like a bee, he would find each straw to find it. needle. I used to be a sad witness to his actions and knew that with a bit of theory and calculations he could save 90% of the effort. ” This is also reasonable and sad for Edison because he does not have a good academic background from the child, mainly self-learning. I feel Edison is quite conservative in his way of doing things.  

NIKOLA TESLA (1856 - 1943)

Nikola Tesla (Serbian: Никола Тесла) was born on July 10, 1856 in Smiljan. The Austrian Empire (now Croatia) and died January 7, 1943 in New York City, USA. Tesla is known for his revolutionary contributions in the fields of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Tesla's inventions and theoretical works made the basis of the generation system. AC power, including multi-phase power distribution system and alternating electric motor, help create the 2nd Industrial Revolution.

Tesla used to embrace the idea of ​​a system that transmits electricity and transmits information without using wires. Not only that, he also dreamed that one day people could use electricity freely all over the world. Tesla was isolated and considered a mad scientist at the end of his life. 

Edison judged the value of an invention in how much of that invention gave his business, while Tesla not only cared about money, he said: the meaning of an invention is first of all at the generator. That contributes to how to use the power of nature and serve people. Although there were important discoveries and contributions to science, he died in a state of exhaustion in room No. 3373 of the New Yorker Hotel on January 7, 1943. Perhaps, lessons learned for the home Invention, talents should balance between romance and daydreaming with economic interests, at least like Edison. 

Tesla's works were almost forgotten after his death, but since the 1990s, his name has really become famous. His surname is given as the name of the unit for measuring the induced intensity from tesla in the international measurement system. Tesla also designed a generator of high-voltage tower-type electricity that today is called Tesla tower.


In June 1884, Tesla arrived in New York City. During the Atlantic trip, tickets, money, and some of his luggage were stolen, and he was almost thrown into the sea after a rebellion broke out on the ship. He came to the place with only four cents in his pocket, a letter of introduction, a few poems, and a part of the piece that had not been stolen.

Tesla was hired to work for Edison Machine Works. Tesla's work began with simple electrical engineering and quickly evolved to solve some of the company's most difficult problems. Tesla was even given the task to redesign from the DC generator head of Edison Company.

Tesla was able to redesign Edison's outdated and inefficient generator and motor, improving both economic efficiency and quality. According to Tesla, Edison said: "If you can do that, we will give you 10 thousand dollars." This is an unbelievable word from Edison, who pays stingily, and doesn't have enough of that cash. After several months of work, Tesla completed the task and asked to keep his promise. Edison said that he was just joking ". Tesla, I don't know American humor." Instead, Edison offered to raise his salary by only $ 10 from $ 18 a week for Tesla, Tesla denied it. and immediately resigned. The following is a talk between two people:


After working for a year, one day at Edison Machine Works, two men sat together. Edison asked:
- Why are you not in the workshop or the laboratory, but up here?
- Sir, I have completed all the work. I drew 24 different types of machines according to his principles, invented new batteries, and all those new samples were tested by himself, they were all better than his old models. I ask you to give me the $ 10,000 you promised before, remember?
- I remember, talented guy, but I have to confess to you, I have a bad ear from my baby, when I saved a telegraph from crashing into a train. So I also heard you were struggling, with your Serbian-style English, and you only have more than a year in the United States, you still don't understand how to make a joke of the native people! But a good amount can, or will raise your salary from $ 10 / week to $ 18 / week ... Edison said as if he had memorized this answer already.
- Mr. Edison, I don't have to ask you anything, because you're the one who owes me. I was poor, but working not for money. All I have done, and will do, is for humanity, for a world without oppression and oppression of the rich to the poor. More than anyone else, I understand what electricity is, Mr. Edison, I can use electricity to double the globe, but I never do it. My purpose is not money, my inventions will show new phenomena, hinges of science, for other scientists to be the stepping stone ...
- Don't be hot guy, you are near me, I see we work 19.5 hours a day without holidays, just like that we will succeed like today. Genius is only 1% of excitement, 99% remains hard labor ...
- Mr. Edison, I have already written a resignation letter here, knowing in advance that your company does not have 10 thousand cash to pay me. Anyway, he taught me some useful things, so before I left, I would like to give you two advice, hope you don't mind ...
- Please be honest, brave man! Edison was excited, because for him it was a torture, he would rather use that money to throw in new labs, tireless research ...
- First: I admire his ability to work endlessly, he can do thousands of experiments just to find a new application. While watching him and my colleagues, I could see that if you were to be educated a little more, you could at least deliberately think about how to change the method, and save the least. 30% effort. He was not in elementary school, but his mother taught him and he read a lot of books, which was good; I only learned a couple of college years and quit, because the family did not allow it, but I should have studied at the school and tried to be a father. But after 9 months of bedridden illness, my father gave me a wish if I was saved by God, and my wish was to study and become an engineer. With my logical thinking ability, I can not do any experiments, just carry them out in imagination,

- Guy, I don't want to pay, but I want to pay you with a few hundred shares of a subsidiary, specialized in filament lighting, ... Edison knows that I'm losing an invaluable partner , but do not think that I am taking a long-standing enemy.

- When I was young, I gambled a lot, I gambled without money but to study the psychology of the gamblers, I won all the money for the loser, and I lost the debt to continue, and later When my whole family had to pay badly to pay my debts, I promised never to gamble again, but since then my money has no great meaning! Although he even registered some of my inventions in his name, I did not take it for granted, but let him know another great thing: the future is not in the unidirectional electricity but on the night of the study Where to save, that will have to be alternating current!

- I don't want to hear about it, I've told you many times already! You go away with that hellish way to go!

Tesla stood up holding the hat and came out. He still had white hands, but knew what America was (10 thousand then worth nearly $ 1 million today!). Tesla was thrown into society, went to dig ditches to earn a living, eat and sleep everywhere, but his mind never stopped thinking about alternating inventions and currents. And this is the beginning of a new era, a step forward of humanity, and the beginning of AC vs DC's "War of Currents" (War of Currents).

War of electricity

In the early years of the electricity industry, direct current (DC: Direct Current) invented by Edison was the standard in the United States. But the downside of a direct current is that it cannot transmit electricity far away, Edison's electrical system could only transmit electricity at a distance of about a mile (1.6km).

Meanwhile, alternating current (AC: Alternating Current) can overcome the disadvantages of DC. The alternating power transmission method invented by Nicolas Tesla helps power transmission much further and becomes an important contribution in the electricity industry. In 1888, George Westinghouse paid for a patent on the alternating electric motor and Nicolas Tesla's transformer design and hired Tesla for a year to advise his company. And within a few years, more than 100 cities and towns used Westinghouse's AC system.

Knowing the ability and utility of AC power, Edison planned, he hired children to catch cats and dogs and use them in public shows. He tied the pieces of metal to the body of the dog and the cat and then let the electricity flow through so that the people could see how they were shocked and then asked the question: "Do you accept your wives, guys? Does my child cook with this electric current? ”. Thomas Edison also wasted time and money to launch a campaign against the popularity of alternating current. He collected data on deaths caused by alternating electricity. Moreover, on January 4, 1903, a circus elephant, named Topsy, suddenly went crazy and killed three people. It is immediately considered a threat to eliminate. Edison saw an opportunity to prove the danger of alternating current, so he proposed killing the elephant with alternating current. Topsy was fed carrots laced with cyanide, then killed with 6,000 volts of electricity. In a way, this is Edison's "non-military" propaganda campaign. because Edison's grid system only supports up to 110 volts DC (and cannot have a higher voltage at a low cost) rather than a more dangerous alternating power.

Although Thomas Edison tried to propagate the danger of alternating current, it still dominates power transmission worldwide. However, most electrical equipment now (phones, computers, laptops, tablets, music players, coffee makers, microwave ovens) all need an AC to DC converter. So, even though Edison lost the power transmission battle, he won the "electronics segment".

Many of their inventions are still used by us. Edison has: the microphone, the speaker and the telephone receiver with the word "Hello" (mouth!) Are also given by him, the filament lamp, the phonograph, the movie projector, the recorder .... ., Tesla has a plan to charge batteries without a charger, but in recent years, many of the most modern mobile phones have begun to apply. Tesla also has fluorescent lights, electric meters, steam turbines, electric cars, wireless signal transmitters and radio inventions (though not recognized). I will write an article about Tesla and his inventions.

Tesla is famous for his man-made performances of thunder, lightning, lightning ... (in PR he is the master of Edison - but he does not work collectively, so he is only a "wolf" all his life. single"). They are very popular in the US and around the world, about them having quite a lot of Hollywood movies shot, Tesla is more famous in the world of children's games and toys (with the image of the creator of thunder!). Tesla was so skilled that even UFOs or meteorites Tugunskiy fell to Siberi and was told by Tesla that Tesla embarked on a Russian experiment of magnetic weapons.

(The Tunguska event is an explosion that occurred near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in the current Russian region of the Evenk, Siberi, at 7:17 am on June 30, 1908. Sometimes this event is called the Siberian Big Bang. Can be caused by an aerial explosion of an asteroid or comet from a distance of 5 to 10 km (3 - 6 miles) on the Earth's surface. 10 to 20 million tons of TNT, equivalent to Castle Bravo, the most powerful nuclear bomb ever built by the US The explosion has spilled about 60 million trees on an area of ​​2,150 km2)

Both live quite long. Edison died when he took his wife's hand and said, "It's beautiful out there." Tesla died quietly alone in a New York hotel, when President Roosevelt's wife heard that he was seriously ill to visit. His belongings were sent in a variety of hotels, including supplies, laboratory equipment and handwritten materials. Rumor has it that the FBI came to collect it all ... And until 2007, the museum of Nicola Tesla in Serbia called on world scientists to study the unfinished works he had left behind, including 60,000. document page. At least, the research on energy transfer for any distance is becoming reality ...

So, according to you, Edison or Tesla, who is better? For me, Edison: the hardworking smart man, inventing great talent but conservative, always wanted to win, and Tesla, a genius, with thoughts ahead of his time, however quite eccentric, always alone. Their story is also mentioned in many cinematic works, and the latest in blockbuster Tomorrow Land (2015).