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Tại sao Nhật Bản sinh ít con?

Cập nhật: 01 thg 4, 2019 lúc tháng 3 31, 2019

Referring to Japanese people, we often see information related to Japanese women, how to educate their children, and the lifestyle of the Japanese, but one factor that is ignored is the difficulty that the men The young man is suffering from finding a stable job with a high income.
Japan's population is decreasing day by day. For the first time when the government began to monitor population more than a century ago, the number of children born last year was less than 1 million, due to the country's population falling by more than 300,000. The reason is attributed to the fact that young Japanese people are no longer interested in finding partners, women are more likely to consider careers than marrying and getting married.

But there is a simpler explanation for the country's low birth rate: Japan's birth rate may be declining because there are fewer and fewer suitable opportunities for young people, especially men in one country. economic development. In a country where men are often viewed as patriarchs and pillars of the family, unemployment can create a class of men who will not marry and give birth because they know that they cannot afford it. for your future family.

Gender issues are quite similar to world trends - men are under more pressure, "said Anne Allison, professor of cultural anthropology at Duke University, who compiled the essays. Japan: The uncertain future "said. "Birth rates are declining, even the pairing rate is reduced. And the main reason is economic instability ”.

This may surprise you because Japan - a country with a thriving economy and unemployment rate of less than 3% but the opportunities for business and investment are declining from the trend. more broadly global, it is an increasingly unstable employment situation. Since the post-war period, Japan has a tradition of "stable employment", as the public labor experts often call, when men start their careers with jobs that bring a lot of benefits, a steady increase in wages. Regularly, and understand that if they work hard, they can keep their jobs until they retire.

Now, according to Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University in Japan and author of some books about Japan, about 40% of Japan's workforce is "unstable", that is, they do not work for companies that can give them stable jobs throughout their careers, and instead have temporary and part-time jobs with low wages and no benefits. These temporary workers are counted as having jobs in government statistics. Only about 20% of unstable people can be transferred to stable jobs at some point in their career. According to Kingston professor, from 1995 to 2008, Japan's number of people with stable jobs fell by 3,

People who do unstable jobs are sometimes referred to as "freeters - freelance workers", a combination of "freelance - freelance" and a German "arbeiter" word, yes means labor. According to Professor Kingston, the increase in the number of unstable workers in Japan began in the 1990s, when the government adjusted labor laws to allow intermediary companies to widely use workforce. temporary and contractual. At that time, due to globalization sowing more pressure on companies forced to cut costs, they increased their confidence in temporary workers, a trend that increased dramatically during the Great Depression. “This is the major new development in Japan's recruitment model,

In a culture that is promoting the pillar role of men, this is a problem that is causing serious consequences for marriage and childbirth. Men who do not have a stable job are not considered ideal husbands, even if a couple wants to get married, and both are doing unstable jobs, their parents may react for, according to Ryosuke Nishida, professor of Tokyo Institute of Technology, who wrote about the unemployment problem among young workers said. About 30% of those with unstable jobs will marry at the age of 30, compared to 56% of those with stable jobs, according to Professor Kingston. "Japan thinks that men must have stable jobs," said Nishida professor.

Women want full-time jobs to also find unstable jobs, affecting family care, because of unstable hours and low wages. But it will be more difficult to get married if the man does not have a good job - about 70% of women quit after having their first child, and sometimes depend on their husband's salary.

Women in major cities in Japan say they are tired of finding a man to marry. In Tokyo, there are matchmaking companies that help find partners. They organize events so that everyone can join. Zwei - a promotion matchmaking company held an event, dozens of women gathered in a small studio to attend a cooking class honoring the cuisine of Miyazaki Prefecture in the south of Japan. This event is part of the initiative Zwei has taken to help women feel interesting about life and men living outside Tokyo. Zwei's business model is mainly the matchmaking of women in major cities in Japan with men in other parts of the country, where men are able to own good jobs and are considered trustworthy husbands. "Men in this city are not very masculine and they do not want to get married," said Kouta Takada, a Zwei employee, according to a recent survey of Japanese people aged 18-34. singles and 60% of single women have no lovers.

Office of POSSE, led by a group of established university graduates, wants to create a union for young people. Haruki Konno, the president of the group, said that some young people who have unstable jobs have become "net cafe refugees", who are living in tiny rooms for rent at night. network cafes. People who do not have other stable jobs live with their parents or receive benefits.

Even good jobs in Japan can be fierce

POSSE group calculated that the unstable workers had an average income of about $ 1,800 a month, but had to spend a lot of money on renting room, paying debts for college loans, paying for the security program. Japanese students. Paying these costs is not much for them to manage. About a quarter of the graduates, a close proportion to the number of students studying at large universities, have been well-defined jobs, while others are struggling, "Men At the age of 20, they did not intend to marry or buy a house, ”said Makoto Iwahashi, a member of the POSSE group.

The wave of unstable jobs not only creates worries for those who are doing this job. It also makes companies feel they can treat employees who work stably, because they think these employees are fortunate to have stable jobs. Knowing people in their 20s and 30s who are looking for stable jobs in desperation, companies recruit many young people and force them to work overtime and get little or no pay overtime , arguing that most will not be able to withstand these harsh working conditions. Japan has a long tradition of overwork, Japanese also has a word "karoshi" - death due to overwork,

A book published in 2012 is called "Evil Companies: Japanese Devils", using the phrase "Barakku Kigyo", translated as "dark companies" or "companies." bad company ”, to describe companies that benefit from labor in this way. This phrase has since been and became a common word in Japan. A group of journalists and workers' rights lawyers have now created the most "dark company" award of the year to give to any company that treats the worst employees. (In 2015, Japanese company Seven-Eleven was voted this title). Increasingly, harder to get stable jobs, and those positions are being recruited, they have the advantage to make the most of these workers.

As a result, even good Japanese jobs can be fierce. People who think they can earn enough money to cover their family expenses, but they often don't have time to date, or to do anything other than work, sleep and eat. Many people are so stressed that they can only take care of themselves. At POSSE, there was a young man named Jou Matsubara, graduated from Rikkyo University, a prestigious university in Japan. Matsubara came from a working-class family, though he achieved the dream of a Japanese graduate from this university and had a job at Daiwa House Group, a Japanese housing construction company. Copy.

The company advertised itself as a great place to work, but Matsubara, who was a college wrestler, said he soon realized there was nothing. Although on the paper, the company's employees left from 7 pm, Matsubara said he was asked to work until late at night almost every day. Employees are required to sign out at 7 pm even if they are working at the office, and are granted iPads so they can still do it even if they are not in the office. If they do not sign out, they will receive a call to their mobile phone to remind them to sign out immediately while continuing to work. "The amount of time you work in reality and paperwork are completely irrelevant." I said. Matsubara has almost no time to take a leave, and is asked to go to school to get real estate certificates on Tuesdays and Wednesdays when he does not have to work. This lifestyle makes dating impossible. He said, the time he should have been for dating, when his boss dragged to the nightclubs, and then made him pay.

, Japanese, Japanese, childbirth, Japanese women, educating children, Japanese people's way of life
After a year, overworked hours and pressures have affected his health. Matsubara lost sleep, and began to hear voices in his head. He said he was depressed, because he expected from stable work and what he had experienced completely different. Matsubara said that he went to the emergency hospital many times because he could not breathe. Eventually he suffered a nervous breakdown. The company forced him to quit his job and forced him to pay back the accumulated money from the company's collective housing (Daiwa House refused to answer the request for explanation). Matsubara must now rely on subsidies. "My life has gone smoothly and systematically destroyed by Daiwa House," he said.

Of course, not only Japan is the only place where employees are abused and overworked, this is not the only country with a temporary increase in workers in the current economic era. But there are some things that make Japan different from the US or other developed countries. The first is that stable work is still very valuable in Japanese culture, so that people who cannot find a stable job, regardless of their qualifications, are often condemned in a way that People in other countries do not suffer so. "There is a tendency that when a person does not have a job, he or she will often be blamed," Nishida said.

The second is that Japan has a hard-working culture and many hours are widely accepted, it is considered rude to go out to your boss. People who complain to work overtime are hard to sympathize with friends and family, let alone government. Finally, Japan is a country with a weak union force, and often focuses on compromising with companies and maintaining existing jobs, rather than fighting for workers.

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's government has begun to pay attention to "bad jobs" in Japan, but critics say the government is still not doing enough. A government Labor Reform Board has proposed limiting the number of overtime hours that legitimate companies can require workers to work at only 100 hours a month. And this year, for the first time, the Japanese government also announced a list of more than 300 companies that violated labor laws, hoping that the public companies will change again. In short, the government is supporting trade development and removal of regulations, but according to Temple University professor Kingston, few of those reforms can bring real change.

The Abe government and Japan in general have stated that they will focus on the problem of declining the national birth rate. These commitments focus on helping women balance work and family better, which is one of the sure causes of declining birth rates. But that's not all: although Japanese men have been more socially capable than rural women for a long time, they still need help finding stability in a changing economy.