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Cập nhật: 01 thg 4, 2019 lúc tháng 3 31, 2019

Over 4,000 years of history, the giant pyramids of Giza still stand today. They have become symbols of ancient Egyptian civilization, challenging human intellect for thousands of years.
, Egyptian, Egyptian pyramids, mysterious decoding
The Egyptian pyramid, a thousand-year-long work of time, remains one of the mysteries of modern science. Who built these pyramids? Are they slaves? What is the construction technique they used? The following article by José Miguel Parra, National Geographic reporter, will tell us more about the answers to these questions.

"Giants" at Giza

At the end of the 19th century, Amelia Blanford Edwards was one of the European tourists who set foot in Egypt to admire the wonders of the ancient world. In the book published in 1877 - "A Thousand Miles Up the Nile", she described the burning heat of the desert, until "Great Pyramid, in its size and majesty, appeared above my head ... A sudden surge of emotion, the sky seemed to turn off the sun, it eclipsed the other pyramids, everything was erased, just feeling amazing and amazing. .

Today, most modern travelers will also use such words when standing in front of the giant pyramids at Giza. They have become symbols of the ancient world. It is hard to imagine that 4,600 years ago, the plateau where they stood was a deserted desert under a burning sun.

Along with the mysterious Sphinx Sphinx, other small tombs and monuments, Giza has three pyramids: Khufu (originally 146m high, also known as Cheops or Great Pyramid); Khafre (143m high) and Menkaure (65m high). Built in Egypt's 4th dynasty, they are the result of one of the most daring and innovative engineering projects the world has ever known.

Pharaohs of the fourth dynasty ruled Egypt from 2575 to 2465 BC. During the golden age of the Old Kingdom, their power center was located in Memphis, the city on the banks of the Nile, 24 km south of Giza.Khufu, the second king of the dynasty, ruled in one the period was relatively peaceful in Egypt, although later Greek historian Herodotus described him and his son as cruel and arrogant. Khufu's architects and engineers embarked on a project beyond through the limits of any other architecture in the Bronze Age. When completed, it completely transformed the plateau.

Why is Giza plateau?
Three pyramid populations at Giza.
Khufu chose this location, in part, to separate himself from the magnificent pyramids built by his father, Snefru, in Dahshur, another city near Memphis. Besides, some other factors also make this place an ideal place. The high terrain of the plateau helps the pyramids look bigger.

It is also near Heliopolis, the city of the sun god Re. Since there were some tombs in Giza before, this land was sanctified and very suitable for building a tomb of a pharaoh who had never seen before.

After Khufu died, his son Redjedef ruled for a short period of time and began building a tomb at Abu Ruwaysh, but was never completed. The next pharaoh was Khafre - the brother of Redjedef, built a pyramid - as well as the great Sphinx as some scholars claim, at Giza.

The next generation also followed the same path: Menkaure - Khafre's son, also built his pyramid in Giza. Every pharaoh built his own pyramid at Giza followed some single rules. simple to ensure harmony on the plateau: the façade of Khafre's high temple is linked to the western face of Khufu pyramid. Khafre. At the same time, an imaginary line almost connects the southeast corners of the three pyramids towards the Re temple in Heliopolis.

Who built the pyramids?
Who built the pyramids, Egyptians, Egyptian pyramids, deciphered Snefu's mystery - Khufu's father, built some pyramids but failed. In the picture is an example, a pyramid was built in Meidum.
Herodotus once affirmed that the construction of the Great Pyramid - which was estimated to have consumed 6 million tons of stone - was done by slaves. However, it has now been proven that this work is practiced by well-paid workers.

Such huge construction projects always leave some archaeological traces. In 1990, archaeologists unearthed a cemetery of workers who built the later two pyramids of Khafre and Menkaure. The tombs were divided into upper and lower rows based on their status. of the dead. Subsequently, in 1999, a village for masons was also discovered.

Both of these important discoveries have helped archaeologists have an extremely valuable data base on the conditions that two smaller Giza pyramids were built - from which, hypotheses can be set. about building Khufu pyramid. A study on the bones of workers showed that the construction work was completely manual - literally. However, these workers are not slaves, but on the contrary are entitled to enviable privileges.

The analysis shows that they enjoy a high-protein diet that the rest of the Nile Valley may have never heard of. The evidence also showed that broken arms and legs were correctly reconnected to show that they had very good medical care. One of the bones in a cemetery had one leg removed. the body of experts estimated that he had lived for another 20 years after the surgery. The discovery of the workers 'village also allowed archaeologists to remove another of Herodotus' false statements that : 100,000 people participated in building Khufu's pyramid. In fact, the village seems to have a maximum capacity of 20,000 people, and perhaps only half of them participate in construction work at a time.

Construction techniques full of mystery
The mural is found in Rekhmire's tomb, describing how masons transport materials.
The challenges of building a huge building and managing thousands of workers require a meticulous plan. The ancient Egyptians also needed to calculate the number of stones needed to build a pyramid with the chosen material. In the case of the Khufu pyramid, its sides matched the bottom at an angle of 52 degrees - This issue was recorded in Egyptian papyrus, showing that they were extremely outstanding in mathematics. The drawings and letters carved on the walls of the monument allow scholars to look use the life of the workers who built these huge projects. The blocks were found to be full of dates and seasons in the Egyptian calendar, indicating that construction was carried out all year round, not just on the occasion of the flooding of the Nile.

There are different types of pyramids and not all are built in the same way. The blocks in the lowest position of the Djoser pyramid at Saqqara - the first pyramid in Egypt, built a century before Khufu's reign - are bricks. However, as construction progresses , engineers became more confident, and began to use larger blocks. In it, the largest stone blocks in Giza weigh about 3 tons, used to build the pyramid of Khafre. Most of the materials to build Giza pyramids come from a quarry just away from the Pyramid Khufu about 1 km to the south. The white limestone blocks that used to be the outer casing of the pyramid were moved by boat along the Nile from Tura, about 13 km away.

When working in Karnak in the 1930s, scholar Henri Chevrier discovered that a 5-ton stone block could be pulled along a dampened clay slope with only six men. found in the tombs proved it, sometimes the stones of that size were also pulled by cows. The slopes used to lift the blocks on the positions of the pyramid are also depicted in drawings at some graves, and there are still archaeological evidence of such slopes at Giza.

The pyramid's geometry also overcomes logistical problems when lifting large blocks of rock: About 40% of the pyramid's mass is concentrated at the bottom. However, lifting stones with a slope is still a big challenge, and it is not yet known how ancient Egyptians solved this problem. One theory is that they may have used it. The internal structure of the pyramid - still visible today, because the outer cover has long since disappeared. The rows that make up the Khufu Great Pyramid are slightly higher than average. So it is very likely that, with enough manpower, leverage has been used to lift large blocks of rock into place - and so on, until the construction is completed in the form of peaks, called needles pyramid.
 Deep inside Khufu's pyramid, the Great Corridor leads to the room where some believe a coffin is made of a hollow granite block to preserve Khufu's body.
The top part of Khufu pyramid has long been overthrown, thought to be made of white stone in Tura. The work is made up of a total of two and a half million blocks of rock, making it one of the largest buildings on the planet, the only wonder of the seven wonders of the ancient world still standing today. .